South of Memphis

The use of impalement crucifixion as an instrument of war was again employed by the Egyptians under Pharaoh Merenptah in the 13th century BCE. Hieroglyphics on the Stela of Merenptah refer to a conflict against the “Libu” (Libyans) in which many were impaled at a site south of Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt.

“… Never shall they leave any people for the Libu (i.e., Libyans), any who shall bring them up in their land! They are cast to the ground, (?) by hundred-thousands and ten thousands, the remainder being impaled (‘put to the stake’) on the South of Memphis. All their property was plundered, being brought back to Egypt…4”

These hieroglyphics provide further evidence (in addtion to the Papyrus Boulaq 18) showing that the Egyptians used impalement crucifixion to execute enemy combatants. They report that thousands of Libu were killed (“cast to the ground”) and that the remainder (those who survived the battle) were impaled. This engagement with the Lebu, along with their Meshwesh (another tribe from Libya) and Sea Peoples allies, took place around 1209 BCE.


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